Shell 的一些笔记

  1. 1. if -e and -n的意思?
  2. 2. Tests
  3. 3. How to exit if a command failed?
  4. 4. Quoting Variables
  5. 5. Exit and Exit Status
  6. 6. Grep

if -e and -n的意思?

如果目标不为 null 则返回 true
-e returns true if the target exists. Doesn’t matter if it’s a file, pipe, special device, whatever. The only condition where something may exist, and -e will return false is in the case of a broken symlink.

For example:

$ ln -s foo bar

$ [ -e foo ]; echo $?

$ touch bar

$ [ -e foo ]; echo $?

In bash you can do help test to see what test options you have.

[ is usually part of your shell. In bash the options and behaviors are defined by bash. It is also kind of a synonym for test. In bash you can do help test to see all the options it supports.
The only real difference between [ and test should be that [ requires a ] after your arguments, whereas test does not. They otherwise work the same, [ -e foo ] is equivalent to test -e foo.

There is also /usr/bin/[ for shells which do not have [ built in. There is no man page for this though. But there is also a /usr/bin/test, and my system does have a man test which covers the options. I haven’t tested, but I’d bet all the options supported by /usr/bin/test work on /usr/bin/[.

Primary Meaning
[ FILE1 -ef FILE2 ] True if FILE1 and FILE2 refer to the same device and inode numbers.
[ -o OPTIONNAME ] True if shell option “OPTIONNAME” is enabled.
[ -z STRING ] True of the length if “STRING” is zero.
[ -n STRING ] or [ STRING ] True if the length of “STRING” is non-zero.

More details: Introduction to if


  • 比较操作符


操作符 说明 例子
-eq 相等 if [ “$a” -eq “$b” ]
-ne 不相等
-gt 大于
-ge 大于或等于
-lt 小于
-le 小于或等于
< 小于 ((“$a” < “$b”))
<= 小于或等于
> 小于
>= 大于或等于


操作符 说明 例子
= 等同
== 相当于=
!= 不相同
< if [[ “$a” < “$b” ]]
if [ “$a” \< “$b” ]
-z 字符串为 null if [ -z “$s” ]
-n 字符串不为 null

How to exit if a command failed?

If you want that behavior for all commands in your script, just add

set -e 
set -o pipefail

at the beginning of the script. This pair of options tell the bash interpreter to exit whenever a command returns with a non-zero exit code.

This does not allow you to print an exit message, though.

Quoting Variables

双引号”” 的作用是使里面的字符除了$`\之外都不作解析,因此在使用变量$variable 的时候尽量加上双引号,以减少符号的解析和防止误解析。

单引号’’ 则不会解析里面的$字符。

Exit and Exit Status




Convert binary file to string and search string.

strings <file_path> | grep "<string>"

Find more files to search the string.

find . -name "*.zip" | xargs string | grep "string"

The End

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